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  1. Andre, M.-F., Hall, K., 2004, Honeycomb development on Alexander Island, glacial history of George VI Sound and palaeoclimatic implications (Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis, W Antarctica): Geomorphology, v. 65, p. 117-138.

  2. Bartrum, J. A., 1936, Honeycomb Weathering of Rocks Near the Shore-Line: The New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, v. 18, p. 593-600.

  3. Blackwelder, E., 1929, Cavernous Rock Surfaces of the Desert: American Journal of Science, v. 17, p. 393-99.

  4. Boxerman, J. Z., 2005, The Evolutionary Cycle of the Tafone Weathering Pattern on Sandstone at Bean Hollow Beach, Northern California, Geological Society of America Sectional Meeting Abstract
    —, 2006, The Evolution of Tafoni on Coastal Sandstones in Northern California, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Geoscience, San Francisco State University, May, 2006.

  5. Bradley, W. C., Hutton, J.T., Twidale, C.R., 1978, Role of Salts in Development of Granitic Tafoni, South Australia: Journal of Geology, v. 86, p. 647-654.

  6. Bryan, K., 1928. Niches and other cavities in sandstone at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, v. 3, p. 125-140.

  7. Butler, P. R., Mount, J.F., 1986, Corroded Cobbles in Southern Death Valley: Their Relationship to Honeycomb Weathering and Lake Shorelines: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 11, p. 377-387.

  8. Cailleux, A., Calkin, P., 1963, Orientation of Hollows in Cavernously Weathered Boulders in Antarctica: Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, v. 12, p. 147-150.

  9. Calkin, P., Cailleux, A., 1962, A Quantitative Study of Cavernous Weathering (Taffonis) and its Application to Glacial Chronology in Victoria Valley, Antarctica: Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, v. 6, p. 317-324.

  10. Conca, J. L., Rossman, G.R., 1982, Case Hardening of Sandstone: Geology, v. 10, p. 520-523
    —, 1985, Core Softening in Cavernously Weathered Tonalite: Journal of Geology, v. 93, p. 59-73.

  11. Conca, J. L., Astor, A.M., 1987, Capillary Moisture Flow and the Origin of Cavernous Weathering in Dolerites of Bull Pass, Antarctica: Geology, v. 15, p. 151-154.

  12. Cooke, R. U., Warren, A. and Goudie, A.S., 1993, Chapter 5, Weathering Forms and Processes, Desert Geomorphology, Taylor & Francis Books Ltd, London, UK, p. 23-44.

  13. Dana, J.D., 1849., Manual of Geology, 1st Ed., Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor and Company, New York

  14. Darwin, C., 1839, The Voyage of the Beagle, collier & Son Company, New York.

  15. Dragovich, D., 1967, Flaking, a Weathering Process Operating on Cavernous Rock Surfaces: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 82, p. 801-804.
    —, 1969, The Origin of Cavernous Surfaces (Tafoni) in Granitic Rocks of Southern South Australia: Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, v. 13, p. 163-181.

  16. French, H. M., Guglielmin, M., 2000, Cryogenic weathering of granite, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, v. 11, p. 305-314.

  17. Gill, E. D., 1981, Rapid Honeycomb Weathering (Tafoni Formation) in Greywacke, S.E. Australia: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 6, p. 81-83.

  18. Gill, E. D., Segnit, E.R., McNeill, N.H., 1981, Rate of Formation of Honeycomb Weathering Features (Small Scale Tafoni) on the Otway Coast, S.E. Australia: Preceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, v. 92, p. 149-154.

  19. Goudie, A., 2003, Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, London, Routledge, p. 1200.

  20. Goudie, A., Viles, H., 1997, Tafoni, Alveoles, Honeycombs, and Overhangs Chapter in Salt Weathering Hazards, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., p. 169-181.

  21. Grantz, A., 1976, Sandstone caves (tafoni) in the Central Santa Cruz Mountains, San Mateo County: California Geology, p. 51-54.

  22. Hacker, A., 2003, Controls of tafoni development in Castle Rocks, Idaho: Downloaded on 1 January 2008 from

  23. Hejl, E., 2005, A Pictorial Study of Tafoni Development from the 2nd Millennium BC: Geomorphology, v. 64, p. 87-95.

  24. Huinink, H. P., Pel, L., Kopinga, K., 2004, Simulating the Growth of Tafoni: Earth Surfaces Process and Landforms, v. 29, p. 1225-1233.

  25. Kejonen, A., Kielosto, S., Lahti, S.I., 1988, Cavernous Weathering Forms In Finland: Geografiska Annaler, v. 70A, p. 315-322.

  26. Kelletat, D., 1980, Studies on the Age of Honeycombs and Tafoni Features: Catena, v. 7, p. 317-325.

  27. Lee, M. R., Parsons, I., 1995, Microtextural controls of perthitic alkali feldspars: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 4465-4488.

  28. Martini, I. P., 1978, Tafoni Weathering, with Examples from Tuscany, Italy: Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, v. 22, p. 44-67.

  29. Matsouka, N., 1995, Rock weathering processes and landform development in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Antarctica: Geomorphology, v. 12, p. 323-329.

  30. Matsukura, Y., Matsouka, N., 1991, Rates of Tafoni Weathering on Uplifted Shore Platforms in Nojima-Zaki, Boso Peninsula, Japan: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 16, p. 51-56.

  31. Matsurkura, Y., Matsuoka, N., Yano, N., 1989, A Preliminary Study on Tafoni and Honeycombs in Nojima-Zaki, Boso Peninsula, Japan: Annual Report, Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba, v. 25, p. 29-32.

  32. McBride, E. F., Dane Picard, M., 2000, Origin and development of tafoni in Tunnel Spring Tuff, Crystal Peak, Utah, USA: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 25, p. 869-879.
    —, 2004, Origin of Honeycombs and Related Weathering Forms in Oligocene Macigno Sandstone, Tuscan Coast Near Livorno, Italy: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 29, p. 713-735.

  33. McGreevy, J. P., 1985, A Preliminary Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Honeycomb Weathering Sandstone in a Coastal Environment: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 10, p. 509-518.

  34. Mellor, A., Short, J., Kirkby, S.J., 1997, Tafoni in the El Chorro Area, Andalucia, Southern Spain: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 22, p. 817-833.

  35. Merino, E., 1984, Survey of Geochemical Self-Patterning Phenomena, in Nicolas, G., Barns, F., ed., Chemical Instabilities, p. 305-328.

  36. Mottershead, D. N., 1994, Spatial Variations in Intensity of Alveolar Weathering of a Dated Sandstone Structure in a Coastal Environment, Weston-super-Mare, UK, pg 151-174, in Robinson, D. A., Williams, R.B.G., ed., Rock Weathering and Landform Evolution, Brighton, UK, John Wiley and Sons
    —, 1997, A Morphological Study of Greenschist Weathering on Dated Coastal Structures, South Devon, UK: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 22, p. 491-506
    —, 2000, Weathering of Coastal Defensive Structures in Southwest England: A 500 Year Stone Durability Trial: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 25, p. 1143-1159.

  37. Mottershead, D. N., Pye, K., 1994, Tafoni on Coastal Slopes, South Devon, U.K.: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 19, p. 543-563.

  38. Mottershead, D., Gorbushina, A., Lucas, G., Wright, J., 2003, The Influence of Marine Salts, Aspect and Microbes in the Weathering of Sandstone in Two Historic Structures: Building and Environment, v. 38, p. 1193-1204.

  39. Mustoe, G. E., 1971, Biochemical Origin of Coastal Weathering Features in the Chuckanut Formation of Northwest Washington, Western Washington State College, p. 1-85.

    —, 1982,
    Origin of Honeycomb Weathering.pdf: GSA Bulletin, v. 93, p. 108-115.
    Article posted by G. Mustoe; Please visit the Gallery to see pictures from Chuckanut!)

    —, 1983, Cavernous weathering in the Capitol Reef Desert, Utah: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 8, p. 517-526.

  40. Norwick, S. A., 2003, A Reconnaissance Study of Variations in Elemental Concentrations During Weathering and Tafoni Development in the 19th Century Arkosic Sandstone Blocks in the Spray Zone at Salt Point State Park, Northern California Coast, U.S.A.: Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract.

  41. Norwick, S. A., Dexter, L.R., 2002, Rates of Development of Tafoni in Moenkopi and Kaibab Formations in Meteor Crater and on the Colorado Plateau, Northeastern Arizona: Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms, v. 27, p. 11-26.

  42. Ortoleva, P., 1984, The Self Organization of Liesegang Bands and other Precipitate Patterns, in Nicolis, G., Bara, F., ed., Chemical Instabilites, D. Reidel Publishing Group, p. 289-297.

  43. Palmer, H. S., Powers, H.A., 1935, Pits in Coastal Pahoehoe Lavas Controlled by Gas Bubbles: Journal of Geology, v. 43, p. 639-643.

  44. Penck, A., 1894, Morphologie der Erdoberflache, in Translated by John Englehorn, ed.

  45. Pestrong, R., 1988, Tafoni Weathering of Old Structures Along the Northern California Coast, USA: Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the Greek National Group of IAEG, p. 1049-105.
    —, 1990, Tafoni: Pacific Discovery, v. 43, p. 14-20.

  46. Prebble, M. M., 1967, Cavernous Weathering in the Taylor Dry Valley, Victoria Land, Antarctica: Nature, v. 216, p. 1194-1195.

  47. Pye, K., Mottershead, D.N., 1995, Honeycomb Weathering of Carboniferous sandstone in a Sea Wall at Weston-super-Mare, UK: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, v. 28, p. 333-347.

  48. Rodriguez-Navarro, C., 1998, Evidence of Honeycomb Weathering on Mars: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, p. 3249-3252.

  49. Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Doehne, E., 1999, Salt Weathering: Influence of Evaporation Rate, Supersaturation and Crystallization Pattern: Earth Surfaces Process and Landforms, v. 24, p. 191-209.

  50. Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Doehne, E., Sebastian, E., 1999, Origins of Honeycomb Weathering: The role of salts and wind: GSA Bulletin, v. 111, p. 1250-1255

  51. Sallman, J. B., 1996, The Development of Salt Weathering and Honeycomb Weathering on Carboniferous Sandstones in the Midwestern United States, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Michigan State University, May, 1996.

  52. Sancho, C., Benito, G., 1990, Factors Controlling Tafoni Weathering in the Ebro Basin (NE Spain): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 34, p. 165-177.

  53. Sancho, C., Fort, R., Belmonte, A., 2003, Weathering Rates of Historic Sandstone Structures in Semi-Arid Environments (Ebro Basin, NE Spain): Catena, v. 53, p. 53-64.

  54. Selby, M. J., 1979, Salt Weathering of Landforms and an Antarctic Example: New Zealand Geography Conference, p. 30-35.

  55. Smith, B. J., 1978, The Origin and Geomorphic Implications of Cliff Foot Recesses and Tafoni on Limestone Hamadas in the Northwest Sahara: Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, v. 22, p. 21-43.

  56. Smith, B. J., McGreevy, J.P., 1983, A Simulation Study of Salt Weathering in Hot Deserts: Geografiska Annaler, v. 65A, p. 127-133.

  57. Smith, P. J., 1982, Why Honeycomb Weathering?: Nature, v. 298, p. 121-122.

  58. Smith, P. J., 1983, Can Honeycomb Weathering be ET?, Nature, V. 301, p. 291.

  59. Stevens, P. S., 1974, Patterns in Nature: Boston, Little Brown and Co., 240 p.

  60. Sunamura, T., 1996, A Physical Model for the Rate of Coastal Tafoni Development: The Journal of Geology, v. 104, p. 741-748.

  61. Suzuki, T., Hachinohe, S., 1995, Weathering Rates in Bedrock Forming Marine Terraces in Boso Peninsula, Japan: Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 16, p. 93-113.

  62. Tschang, H.-L., 1974, Geomorphological Observations on the Tafoni Forms of Hong Kong: The Chung Chi Journal, v. 13, p. 32-51.

  63. Turkington, A. V., 1998, Cavernous Weathering in Sandstone: Lessons to be Learned from Natural Exposure: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, v. 31, p. 375-383.

  64. Turkington, A. V., Paradise, T. R., 2005, Sandstone weathering: A century of research and innovation, Geomorphology, v. 67, p. 229-253.

  65. Turkington, A. V., Phillips, J.D., 2004, Cavernous Weathering, Dynamical Instability and Self-Organization: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 29, p. 665-675.

  66. Twenhaile, A. S., 1992, Chapter 2 - Chemical and Salt Weathering, Geomorphology of Rock Coasts, Oxford, U.K., Oxford University Press, p. 31-58.

  67. Viles, H. A., 2001, Scale Issues in Weathering Studies: Geomorphology, v. 41, p. 63-72.

  68. Viles, H. A., Goudie, A.S., 2004, Biofilms and Case Hardening on Sandstones from Al-Quwayra, Jordan: Earth Surfaces Process and Landforms, v. 29, p. 1473-1485.

  69. Wellman, H. W., Wilson, A.T., 1965, Salt Weathering, a Neglected Geological Erosive Agent in Coastal and Arid Environments: Nature, v. 205, p. 1097-1098.

  70. Wilhelmy, H. 1964. Cavernous rock surfaces (tafoni) in semiarid and arid climates, Pakistan Geographical Review, 19, 8-13.

  71. Winkler, E. M., 1979, Role of salts in development of granitic tafoni, South Australia: Journal of Geology, v. 88, p. 119-120.

  72. Young, A. R. M., 1987, Salt as an Agent in the Development of Cavernous Weathering: Geology, v. 15, p. 962-966.